English-language words and phrases used by contemporary accounts to characterise the event include "massacres", "atrocities", "annihilation", "holocaust", "the murder of a nation", "race extermination" and "a crime against humanity". It happened to the Armenians, then after the Armenians Hitler took action. Concerned that Westerners would come to regard the "extermination of the Armenians" as "a black stain on the history of Islam, which the ages will not efface", El-Ghusein also observes that many Armenian converts were put to death. Armenians in the Ottoman Empire and Ottoman Armenian population Armenians under Ottoman rule The western portion of historical Armenia, known as Western Armeniahad come under Ottoman jurisdiction by the Peace of Amasya and was permanently divided from Eastern Armenia by the Treaty of Zuhab
English-language words and phrases used by contemporary accounts to characterise the event include "massacres", "atrocities", "annihilation", "holocaust", "the murder of a nation", "race extermination" and "a Armenians and armenia specific purpose against humanity".
It happened to the Armenians, then after the Armenians Hitler took action. Inthe Elie Wiesel Foundation for Humanity produced a letter  signed by 53 Nobel Laureates re-affirming the Genocide Scholars' conclusion that the killings of Armenians constituted genocide.
Concerned that Westerners would come to regard the "extermination of the Armenians" as "a black stain on the history of Islam, which the ages will not efface", El-Ghusein also observes that many Armenian converts were put to death.
Armenians in the Ottoman Empire and Ottoman Armenian population Armenians under Ottoman rule The western portion of historical Armenia, known as Western Armeniahad come under Ottoman jurisdiction by the Peace of Amasya and was permanently divided from Eastern Armenia by the Treaty of Zuhab Armenians were mainly concentrated in the eastern provinces of the Ottoman Empire, although large communities were also found in the western provinces, as well as in the capital, Constantinople.
The Armenian community was made up of three religious denominations: Under the millet system, the Armenian community was allowed to rule itself under its own system of governance with fairly little interference from the Ottoman government.
The dhimmi system in the Ottoman Empire was largely based upon the Pact of Umar. The client status established the rights of the non-Muslims to property, livelihood and freedom of worship, but they were in essence treated as second-class citizens in the empire and referred to in Turkish as gavoursa pejorative word meaning " infidel " or "unbeliever".
The clause of the Pact of Umar which prohibited non-Muslims from building new places of worship was historically imposed on some communities of the Ottoman Empire and ignored in other cases, at the discretion of local authorities.
Although there were no laws mandating Armenians and armenia specific purpose ghettos, this led to non-Muslim communities being clustered around existing houses of worship. Testimony against Muslims by Christians and Jews was inadmissible in courts of law wherein a Muslim could be punished; this meant that their testimony could only be considered in commercial cases.
They were forbidden to carry weapons or ride atop horses and camels. Their houses could not overlook those of Muslims; and their religious practices were severely circumscribed, e.
Armenians are labeled in blue. In the midth century, the three major European powers, Great Britain, France and Russia, began to question the Ottoman Empire's treatment of its Christian minorities and pressure it to grant equal rights to all its subjects.
From to the declaration of a constitution inthe Ottoman government instituted the Tanzimata series of reforms designed to improve the status of minorities.
Nevertheless, most of the reforms were never implemented because the empire's Muslim population rejected the principle of equality for Christians. By the late s, the Greeksalong with several other Christian nations in the Balkansfrustrated with their conditions, had, often with the help of the Entente powersbroken free of Ottoman rule.
Led by intellectuals educated at European universities or American missionary schools in Turkey, Armenians began to question their second-class status and press for better treatment from their government.
In one such instance, after amassing the signatures of peasants from Western Armenia, the Armenian Communal Council petitioned the Ottoman government to redress their principal grievances: The Ottoman government considered these grievances and promised to punish those responsible, but no meaningful steps to do so were ever taken.
At the same time, the Armenian patriarch of Constantinople, Nerses II, forwarded Armenian complaints of widespread "forced land seizure In the wake of these events, Patriarch Nerses and his emissaries made repeated approaches to Russian leaders to urge the inclusion of a clause granting local self-government to the Armenians in the forthcoming Treaty of San Stefanowhich was signed on 3 March The Russians were receptive and drew up the clause, but the Ottomans flatly rejected it during negotiations.
In its place, the two sides agreed on a clause making the Sublime Porte 's implementation of reforms in the Armenian provinces a condition of Russia's withdrawal, thus designating Russia the guarantor of the reforms.
On receiving a copy of the treaty, Britain promptly objected to it and particularly Article 16, which it saw as ceding too much influence to Russia. It immediately pushed for a congress of the great powers to be convened to discuss and revise the treaty, leading to the Congress of Berlin in June—July Confined to the periphery, the delegation did its best to contact the representatives of the powers and argue the case for Armenian administrative autonomy within the Ottoman Empire, but to little effect.
Following an understanding reached with Ottoman representatives, Britain drew up an emasculated version of Article 16 to replace the original, a clause that retained the call for reforms, but omitted any reference to the Russian occupation, thereby dispensing with the principal guarantee of their implementation.
Despite an ambiguous reference to Great Power supervision, the clause failed to offset the removal of the Russian guarantee with any tangible equivalent, thus leaving the timing and fate of the reforms to the discretion of the Sublime Porte.
Armenian national liberation movement Main article: Armenian national liberation movement Prospects for reforms faded rapidly following the signing of the Berlin treaty, as security conditions in the Armenian provinces went from bad to worse and abuses proliferated.
Upset with this turn of events, a number of disillusioned Armenian intellectuals living in Europe and Russia decided to form political parties and societies dedicated to the betterment of their compatriots in the Ottoman Empire.
In the last quarter of the 19th century, this movement came to be dominated by three parties: Ideological differences aside, all the parties had the common goal of achieving better social conditions for the Armenians of the Ottoman Empire through self-defense  and advocating increased European pressure on the Ottoman government to implement the promised reforms.
Hamidian massacres, — Main article: Hamidian massacres Corpses of massacred Armenians in Erzurum in InAbdul Hamid created a paramilitary outfit known as the Hamidiyewhich was mostly made up of Kurdish irregulars tasked to "deal with the Armenians as they wished". In some instances, Armenians successfully fought off the regiments and in brought the excesses to the attention of the Great Powers, who subsequently condemned the Porte.
On 1 October2, Armenians assembled in Constantinople to petition for the implementation of the reforms, but Ottoman police units violently broke the rally up. Estimates differ on how many Armenians were killed, but European documentation of the pogromswhich became known as the Hamidian massacresplaced the figures at betweenandThis incident brought further sympathy for Armenians in Europe and was lauded by the European and American press, which vilified Hamid and painted him as the "great assassin", "bloody Sultan", and " Abdul the Damned ".The Treatment of Talat Bey: a Case Study.
The principal villain of Ambassador Morgenthau's Story, and the subject of its greater invective, is Talaat Bey, the Ottoman Minister of Interior. Scattered across the empire, the status of the Armenians was further complicated by the fact that the territory of historic Armenia was divided between the Ottomans and the Russians.
In its heyday in the sixteenth century, the Ottoman Empire was a powerful state. By the end of the 15th century, the Ottoman Empire was in extent much like Romania of the Macedonian Emperors had been in the midth century, with, of course, now the same capital, Constantinople..
Much that seems characteristic of Islam today, like the domed mosque and perhaps even the symbol of the Crescent, are due to Byzantine influence by way of the Ottomans.
ROME AND ROMANIA, 27 BC AD.
Emperors of the Roman and the so-called Byzantine Empires; Princes, Kings, and Tsars of Numidia, Judaea, Bulgaria, Serbia, Wallachia, & Moldavia;.
He was the brother of the Parthian king Vologases I (r. c.
CE) who invaded Armenia in 52 CE for the specific purpose of setting Tiridates on the throne. The Romans were not content to let Parthia into their buffer zone, and in 54 CE, Emperor Nero (r. CE) sent an army under his best general Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo. Megan Montgomery Com Stephanie Brown October 3, Armenia Specific Purpose: To inform the audiance of the culture and problems of Armenia.
Central Ideas: Music, the arts and tough times, shape what Armenia is in present day.