The 19th Century - The database consists of six newspapers:
Social psychology as a distinct discipline also originated in the 19th century, although its outlines were perhaps somewhat less clear than was true of the other social sciences.
The close relation of the human mind to the social order, its dependence upon education… Research methods Laboratory experiments, often using volunteer students as subjects, omit many features of daily social life. Such experiments also have been criticized as being subject to bias, since the experimenters themselves may influence the results.
Research workers who are concerned more with realistic settings than with rigour tend to leave the laboratory to perform field studiesas do those who come from sociological traditions. Field research, however, also can be experimental, and the effectiveness of each approach may be enhanced by the use of the methods of the other.
Many colleges and universities have a social-psychology laboratory equipped with observation rooms permitting one-way vision of subjects. Sound and video recorders and other devices record ongoing social interaction; computing equipment and other paraphernalia may be employed for specific studies.
Social behaviour is understood to be the product of innate biological factors resulting from evolution and of cultural factors that have emerged in the course of history. Later research and writing that tended to stress learning theory emphasized the influence of environmental factors in social behaviour.
It is coming to be a widely accepted view that human social behaviour seems to have a biological basis and to reflect the operation of evolution as in the case of patterns of emotional expression and other nonverbal communication, the structure of Legal aspects of psychology, and aspects of group behaviour.
Much research has been done on socialization the process of learning from a cultureand learning has been found to interact with innate factors. An innate capacity for language, for example, makes it possible to learn a local language.
Culture consists of patterns of behaviour and ways of organizing experience; it develops over the course of history as new elements are introduced from a variety of sources, only some of which are retained.
Many aspects of social behaviour can be partly accounted for in terms of their history. Social perception In some laboratory experiments, subjects watch stills or moving pictures, listen to tape recordings, or directly observe or interact with another person.
Subjects may be asked to reveal their social perception of such persons on rating scales, to give free descriptions of them, or to respond evaluatively in other ways. Although such studies can produce results that do not correspond to those in real-life settings, they can provide useful information on the perception of personality, social roles, emotions, and interpersonal attitudes or responses during ongoing social interaction.
Research has been directed to how social perception is affected by cultural stereotypes e.
The work has found practical application in the assessment of employees and of candidates for positions. There also has been research on the ways in which perception of objects and people is affected by social factors such as culture and group membership. It has been shown, for example, how coins, colours, and other physical cues are categorized differently by people as a result of their group membership and of the categories provided by language.
Other studies have shown the effect of group pressures on perception. Interaction processes The different verbal and nonverbal signals used in conversation have been studied, and the functions of such factors as gaze, gesture, and tone of voice are analyzed in social-interaction studies.
Social interaction is thus seen to consist of closely related sequences of nonverbal signals and verbal utterances. Gaze has been found to perform several important functions. Laboratory and field studies have examined helping behaviour, imitationfriendship formation, and social interaction in psychotherapy.
Among the theoretical models developed to describe the nature of social behaviour, the stimulus—response model in which every social act is seen as a response to the preceding act of another individual has been generally found helpful but incomplete.
Linguistic models that view social behaviour as being governed by principles analogous to the rules of a game or specifically to the grammar of a language have also attracted adherents. Others see social behaviour as a kind of motor skill that is goal-directed and modified by feedback or learningwhile other models have been based on the theory of gameswhich emphasizes the pursuit and exchange of rewards and has led to experiments based on laboratory games.
Small social groups All small social groups do not function according to the same principles, and, indeed, modes of social activity vary for particular kinds of groups e. Earlier research was concerned with whether small groups did better than individuals at various tasks e.
In the method known as sociometrymembers nominate others e.
Others have studied the effects of democratic and authoritarian leadership in groups and have greatly extended this work in industrial settings. In research on how people respond to group norms e. The emergence and functioning of informal group hierarchiesthe playing of social roles e.
Experiments have been done on processes of group problem solving and decision makingthe social conditions that produce the best results, and the tendency for groups to make risky decisions.
Statistical field studies of industrial work groups have sought the conditions for greatest production effectiveness and job satisfaction.
Social organizations Such organizations as businesses and armies have been studied by social surveys, statistical field studies, field experiments, and laboratory experiments on replicas of their social hierarchies and communication networks.
Although they yield the most direct evidence, field experiments present difficulties, since the leaders and members of such organizations may effectively resist the intervention of experimenters. Clearly, efforts to try out democratic methods in a dictatorship are likely to be severely punished.
Investigators can study the effects of role conflict resulting from conflicting demands e. Researchers also have studied the sources of power and how it can be used and resisted.Ethical and legal aspects of touch in psychotherapy and counseling. Psychology, scientific discipline that studies mental states and processes and behaviour in humans and other animals..
The discipline of psychology is broadly divisible into two parts: a large profession of practitioners and a smaller but growing science of mind, brain, and social skybox2008.com two have distinctive goals, training, and practices, but some psychologists integrate the two.
Graduate Students. The Department of Psychology at Carnegie Mellon University offers an intense, challenging and exciting training program leading to the Ph.D. degree. All positive psychology articles within this category deal with different subjects that lie within the field of positive psychology.
Legal Aspects of Psychology Legal Aspects of Professional Psychology Heidi Andrews University of Phoenix – Psych Dr. Meghan Kelley August 2, Legal Aspects of Professional Psychology The legal aspects and issues are a .
Become a Vital Part of Our Justice System with a Master's in Forensic Psychology Online. Forensic psychology is the intersection of psychology and law.